Unicode error

The page you just viewed could not be displayed correctly because it was written in Unicode-8, also called Universal Text Format 8 bits (UTF-8). Apparently your operating system or your browser does not support this text encoding. If you are in doubt about what operating system or browser version you are using, you can have it checked by proceeding hither.

If you came here from Erik Thau-Knudsen's List of publications, what you were missing was probably written as interrogative signs in brackets, i.e., as [????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????] or other characters you never imagined were in your computer. In this case, you might just go back to the page. The passages in brackets were merely the original titles in Cyrillic letters, and you already have the transcriptions.
However, since Unicode is becoming more and more widespread, you will sooner or later face the same problem. So why not solve it for good?

Use my advice below or proceed to Penn State University's guidance.

Other links: UTF-8 and Unicode standards |


Apple Macintosh

1. Operating system

You should install Language Kit, an Apple software that was sold separately for Systems versions 7 through 8.6.
If you use System 7 through 8.6 and cannot purchase Language Kit anywhere, do upgrade to System 9.0 or later; the Installation CD-ROM has Unicode as an optional installation. You will access the support from within the System Installer. World Scripting is required to install as well, of course.
If you use System 9 already, there was simply something you forgot when installing the operating system. Run the installer again. Install all available languages.
System X is Unicode native, i.e., it was born with Unicode in its backbone. No need to change system settings unless you chose a non-default installation.

If you own a Mac with a G3 processor, don't hesitate to upgrade. System 9 was made bearing G3 operationality in mind.

Check out what operating system your Mac can bear to run:
System 7.1 through Mac OS 7.6: Compatibility With Macintosh Computers (AppleCare Document 8970)
Mac OS 8-9 Compatibility With Macintosh Computers (AppleCare Document: 25114)

2. WWW browser

Although otherwise stated by their authors, Netscape Navigator/Communicator  and Internet Explorer make poor support for Unicode in earlier versions. You should upgrade to Netscape Communicator version 4 or later (the later, the better.) and Internet Explorer version 5 or later. The reason for using the most recent browser versions is that there are several different ways to unicode text. A more recent Unicode formatting system utilizes glyph numbers, i.e., one number for every character. Older systems used combinations of non-ASCII characters to annotate anything beyond what you can type with an American typewriter. 
Netscape 4.79 and earlier cannot read the numbered Unicode system, also called hexadecimal
You can check the annotation system in a Page Source window (Menu > View > Page Source). If numbers of the kind Почет come up in the text, then you are at a hexadecimal Unicode page.

List of browsers
  • Chimera (only for UNIX)
  • iCab (only for Macintosh). Depends on Apple Language Kit to display non-hexadecimal Unicode properly. Flawless in Macintosh OS X.
  • Microsoft Internet Explorer (for Windows and Macintosh). In Macintosh, it depends on Apple Language Kit.
  • Netscape (for Windows, Macintosh, Linux, UNIX, Sun OS, Be OS etc.). In Macintosh, it depends on Apple Language Kit.
  • Opera (for Windows, Macintosh, Linux, UNIX, Sun OS, Be OS etc.)
  • Safari (only for Macintosh version X and above). OK for Unicode

3. Fonts

Of course, you cannot view the pages correctly unless you have installed the correct fonts in your Macintosh, in this case Central European and/or Cyrillic. I recommend that you use the Apple standard fonts, although some others will work as well. More about fonts

Microsoft Windows

Most probably you did not install support for East European languages. This is an option when installing Windows on your PC. If you use Windows 3, I cannot give you any clue. For later versions (in this case Windows 95 and 98):

  • Insert your Windows Installation CD-ROM into your computer
  • Go to: Control Panels > Add/Remove Programs.
  • In the Add/Remove Programs Properties window, choose Windows Setup.
  • In the Windows Setup, uncheck all options save Multilanguage Support. Click Details... in order to specify the languages. You should choose them all -- just in case. It only takes up 5 MB of hard disk space for all European languages, and it will install all the needed software to display the alphabets.
  • Click OK and OK again.
  • Continue the installation as prompted by Windows. Restart. You're done.

You may also have browser dysfunctionality. Try to re-install or upgrade your browser; in the case of Microsoft Internet Explorer, you would benefit from a customized installation. In principle, Windows 95 shouldn't really support Unicode, but Microsoft Internet Explorer for Windows works sometimes.

Finally, you may not have the right fonts installed. There is no such font that covers all modern languages, but the best in Windows is considered to be MS Lucida unicode. If you have it already, try to set it as the default font for displaying web pages.

Server trouble at www.thau-knudsen.dk

I am experiencing trouble with my server at b å One, which apparently cannot display Cyrillic characters at all, and non-ASCII comes out messy too. It is the case, if there is written http://www.thau-knudsen.dk in the URL address field of your browser window. I am trying to deal with it.

Erik Thau-Knudsen, 2003-12-23

Made on March 18, 2003
Updated 2004-11-18